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Source file: merge-sort.fut

Merge sort

A traditional recursive merge sort does not work in Futhark, but we can construct a bitonic mergesort fairly straightforwardly. The main limitation is that bitonic sorting requires the input size to be a power of 2, but we accomodate arbitrary sizes by padding with the largest element.

In most cases using a radix sort is superior, but merge sorting has the advantage that it only requires an ordering, while radix sort requires that we can decompose the elements into digits.

First we need a way to find the largest element of a nonempty array.

def maximum lte xs =
  reduce (\x y -> if x `lte` y then y else x) xs[0] xs

Also, we define a function for computing the integral base-2 logarithm. We do this by using the count leading zeroes primitive.

def ilog2 (n: i64) : i64 = i64.i32 (63 - i64.clz n)

Then we can create a function that pads an array with the largest element, up till the next power of two.

def pad_to k x xs = concat_to k xs (replicate (k - length xs) x)

def padpow2 lte xs =
  let d = ilog2 (length xs) in
  if d < 0 || length xs == 2**d then (xs, d)
  else (pad_to (2**(d+1)) (maximum lte xs) xs, d+1)

Now we can define the bitonic sort itself. Read the reference above for details on why this algorithm works.

def bitonic lte a p q =
  let d = 1 << (p-q) in
  let f i a_i =
    let up1 = ((i >> p) & 2) == 0
    in if (i & d) == 0
       then let a_iord = a[i | d] in
            if (a_iord `lte` a_i) == up1
            then a_iord else a_i
       else let a_ixord = a[i ^ d] in
            if (a_i `lte` a_ixord) == up1
            then a_ixord else a_i
  in map2 f (indices a) a

def sort [n] 't (lte: t -> t -> bool) (xs: [n]t): [n]t =
  let (xs', d) = padpow2 lte xs
  in (loop xs' for i < d do loop xs' for j < i+1 do bitonic lte xs' i j)
     |> take n

Note how we preserve only the first n elements. Since we padded with the largest element, this effectively strips off the padding.

See also

Radix sort

The sorts library.