For the convenience of users who would rather not install a Haskell compiler and its associated tooling, we’ve made precompiled Futhark binaries available for years now. The only platform we provide releases for is x86-64 Linux, mostly because we lack the CI infrastructure to build on anything else (and macOS users should just install from Homebrew). Until recently, the binaries were ordinary dynamic executables. This means that the user must have the necessary dependencies already installed, and we must document what they are. So what are they? Let’s look at one recent release:
$ ldd futhark-0.15.3-linux-x86_64/bin/futhark linux-vdso.so.1 => (0x00007ffc14bfb000) libm.so.6 => /lib64/libm.so.6 (0x00007f3928cf2000) libz.so.1 => /lib64/libz.so.1 (0x00007f3928adc000) libpthread.so.0 => /lib64/libpthread.so.0 (0x00007f39288c0000) libtinfo.so.5 => /lib64/libtinfo.so.5 (0x00007f3928696000) librt.so.1 => /lib64/librt.so.1 (0x00007f392848e000) libutil.so.1 => /lib64/libutil.so.1 (0x00007f392828b000) libdl.so.2 => /lib64/libdl.so.2 (0x00007f3928087000) libgmp.so.10 => /lib64/libgmp.so.10 (0x00007f3927e0f000) libc.so.6 => /lib64/libc.so.6 (0x00007f3927a41000) /lib64/ld-linux-x86-64.so.2 (0x00007f3928ff4000)
Most of these dependencies are very standard - the C library, its math component, the Linux syscall interface, and so on. The only remotely unusual parts are
libtinfo.so.5 (for terminal information),
libz.so (unpacking zip files), and
libgmp.so.10 (bignums). All of these are pretty common libraries, but they are not truly universal, and there have been a few cases where the
futhark binary failed to run because of a missing dependency. In particular, different distributions have different versions of
libgmp.so installed by default. Similarly, using
libtinfo.so.5 instead of
libncursesw.so.6 reflects that this binary was built on a relatively old system (Ubuntu 14.04, running on Travis). On newer systems, this may require users to install a package such as ncurses5-compat-libs. Updating the CI systems is not a solution, because then the binaries might not run on older systems, and many scientific computing installations tend to run systems like RHEL, which can stay unchanged for many years. What to do? I got into compilers so I didn’t have to worry about all this systems administration stuff!
The traditional solution is to use static linking, where all library code is bundled into the executable itself. This was the traditional approach before dynamic linking became common on Unix in the late 80s and early 90s. Static linking has had a bit of a renaissance recently, with many newer languages statically linking most dependencies by default, and only dynamically linking with C dependencies. Go in particular is (in)famous for static linking. The motivation is easier deployment, as executables become self-contained.
Like Rust, Go, and so many others, the Glasgow Haskell Compiler (GHC) links Haskell dependencies statically and C dependencies dynamically. GHC can also link the C dependencies statically, although it can be a bit involved, and you usually need special packages on the system where you build (but not where you run) to get the static libraries. I’d rather not make that the default for people who compile Futhark on their own.
My solution was to write a Nix derivation for building Futhark release tarballs. It concisely encapsulates the environment and dependencies necessary for statically linking the
futhark binary (as well as the man pages, for that matter). The result is beautiful:
$ ldd futhark-nightly-linux-x86_64/bin/futhark not a dynamic executable
What about size? What is the performance impact of statically linking the C dependencies? Well:
$ du -sh futhark-0.15.3-linux-x86_64/bin/futhark 73M futhark-0.15.3-linux-x86_64/bin/futhark $ du -sh futhark-nightly-linux-x86_64/bin/futhark 32M futhark-nightly-linux-x86_64/bin/futhark
The statically linked binary turns out to be half the size. This is not a fair comparison, because the build environments are also very different, but it shows that static linking is not going to make the
futhark binary explode in size (or alternatively that it already has, since all the Haskell-level dependencies have always been statically linked).
Those who are familiar with static linking may have noticed a problem. The problem is that the GNU C library, glibc, does not work real well with static linking. Specifically, the Name Service Switch, which among other things performs DNS lookups, is intrinsically tied to dynamic linking, and will often not work for statically linked binaries. While the Futhark compiler doesn’t do a lot of network requests, its package manager does do a few. The best solution is likely to use a different C library that is more friendly to static linking, like musl. People are working on building static Haskell executables with Nix, but for now I could not get it to work.
The solution was to realise that our network needs are extremely simple. All we need is to perform a few HTTP GETs on specific URLs and retrieve the contents as byte sequences. We could just shell out to curl instead. And now we do. This also allowed us to remove all Haskell dependencies related to HTTP requests, which caused a significant decrease in binary size. The downside is that using the Futhark package manager will require
curl to be installed, but
curl is so common that it will not be a problem. It also saves us from having to worry about managing a certificate store in order to validate HTTPS signatures or whatnot. Again, not why I got into compilers. If
curl works, then
futhark pkg will work. It will even use the default
curl configuration file, so the users of weird networks can put whatever they want there to make it work.