The Futhark Record System

Posted on March 6, 2017 by Troels Henriksen

Most programming languages, except perhaps for the most bare-bones, support some mechanism for creating records, although rarely using that term. For the purposes of this post, a record is an object containing labeled fields, each of which contains a value. In C, a struct is a record:

struct point {
  int x;
  int y;

In object-oriented languages, records are further embellished with methods and (sometimes) access control, giving rise to classes. For this blog post, I will stick to the simpler incarnation of records as simply labeled collections of values. It turns out that even this simple idea contains interesting design questions. In the following, I will discuss the various ways records crop up in various programming languages, and describe the design and notation we have chosen for records in Futhark. I should note that there is (intentionally) little novelty in our design - we have mostly picked features that already seemed to work well elsewhere. Futhark is a simple language designed for (relatively) small programs that have to run really fast, so we don’t need language features that support very elaborate data structures. Constructing the compiler is plenty challenging already.

Basics of Records

At its core, a record is a mapping from keys to values. What sets records apart from associative arrays or other key-value data structures is that the keys for a record (the labels of the fields) are determined at compile time. Consider the point struct defined above - there is no way to dynamically add or remove a field at run-time. In some languages (e.g. Python) the distinction is less clear-cut, but we still tend to organise our values as some where the keys are dynamic, and others where they are static. Records are a useful organising principle, even when they are all just hash tables underneath and there is no type system enforcement . However, as Futhark is a statically typed language, we will need to make decisions about how record types work.

One of the key differences between how languages handle records is whether they use nominal or structural typing. In C, for example, we could define two structs with identical fields:

struct point_a {
  int x;
  int y;

struct point_b {
  int x;
  int y;

To the C compiler, these two types are distinct. If a function expects an argument of type point_a and we call it with a value of type point_b, we will get a type error. Thus, C is nominally typed: types with different names are completely distinct, except for type aliases defined via typedef.

In a structural record system, the types point_a and point_b would be identical, because they have the same structure. This is sometimes called static duck typing. Go is an example of a language that uses structural types pervasively, but there are also languages that use both nominal and structural types for different parts of the type system. One such language is Standard ML, where records are structurally typed, and algebraic types are nominally typed.

Records in Futhark

The Futhark record system is primarily inspired by the records in Standard ML, and is therefore structurally typed. One particularly nice capability of a structural record system is anonymous record types, which we in Futhark write as a sequence of comma-separated field descriptions enclosed in curly braces. For example, {x:i32, y:bool} describes a record with two fields: x, containing a 32-bit integer, and y containing a boolean. The order in which fields are listed does not matter, but duplicate labels are not allowed.

Anonymous record types may seem strange at first, but quickly become natural. If we can write (int,bool) to denote an unnamed pair, why not also {x:i32, y:bool} for an unnamed record? A record is nothing more than a tuple with labels, after all. This also means that there is no need for the language to have a facility for defining named records. The usual type abbreviation mechanism works the same whether the right-hand side is a primitive type, a tuple, or a record:

type point = {x:f64, y:f64}

(In Futhark, the built-in type f64 is a double-precision floating point number.)

Records are constructed via record expressions:

let some_point: point = {x=1.0, y=2.0}

A record expression is a comma-separated sequence of field assignments, enclosed in curly braces. For example, {x=1.0, y=2.0} produces a record of type {x:f64, y:f64}, which is equivalent to the type point defined above. The order in which fields are listed makes no difference (except in the case of duplicates), and so {y=2.0, x=1.0} has the same type and produces the same value as {x=1.0, y=2.0}.

This flexible use of anonymous record types and record expressions would be more difficult in a nominal record system. Consider the following two definitions in a hypothetical nominal record system:

type r1 = {x: bool}
type r2 = {x: bool}

When we encounter a record expression {x=true}, is the result of type r1 or r2? Most languages solve this by requiring type annotations. For example, in C, you have to declare the type of a variable when you introduce it, and hence name clashes between struct members it not an issue. In OCaml and Haskell, record labels are scoped: only one x field label can exist at a time. In the case above, the x from r1 would be shadowed by the definition of r2, and hence {x=true} would have type r2. A common consequence is that programmers assign the labels of a type a unique prefix:

type r1 = {r1_x: bool}
type r2 = {r2_x: bool}

The need for such prefixes is one of the most common criticisms levied at the Haskell record system (although work is ongoing on fixing it). Altogether, for Futhark, we found the Standard ML approach simpler and more elegant.

Now that we can both describe record types and create record values, the next question is how to access the fields of a record, which we call field projection. In languages descended from C, this is done with dot-notation: p.x extracts field x from the record (well, struct) p. Standard ML (but not OCaml) chooses a different notation, which we have also adopted for Futhark: #x p. This notation feels more functional to me. You can pass it, in curried form, as the argument to map, to project an array of records to an array of field values: map #x ps. This requires an explicit lambda if done with dot-notation. However, this quality is a matter of subjective aesthetic preference (and Elm can do this with dot-notation anyway). A more important reason is ambiguity. Since module- and variable names reside in different namespaces, we can have both a module p and a variable p in scope simultaneously. Is p.x then a module member access, or a field projection?

Other languages solve this ambiguity in a wealth of different ways. C sidesteps the issue by not having modules at all. C++’s namespaces use a different symbol (::). Java implements modules as static class members, which means there is only one namespace, and either the “record” or the “module” will be in scope. OCaml makes module names lexically distinct by mandating that they begin with an uppercase letter, while variable names must begin with a lowercase letter. While this latter solution is elegant, I do not wish to impose such constraints on Futhark (for reasons I will not go into here). Hence, we are going with the SML notation: #x p retrieves field x from p.

Field projection is not the only way to access the fields of a record. Just as we can use tuple patterns to take tuples apart, so do we have record patterns for accessing the fields of a record:

let {x=first, y=second} = p

This binds the variables first and second to the x and y fields of p. Instead of just names, first and second could also be patterns themselves, permitting further deconstruction when the fields of a record are themselves records or tuples. For now, all fields of the record must be mentioned in the pattern. As a common-case shortcut, a field name can be listed by itself, to bind a variable by the same name:

let {x,y} = p
-- same as
let {x=x,y=y} = p

Record patterns can of course also appear as function parameters, although type annotations are necessary due to limitations in the type inference capabilities of the Futhark compiler:

let add_points {x1:f64, y1:f64} {x2:f64, y2:f64} =
  {x = x1 + x2, y = y1 + y2}

Record Updates

When working with records, it is frequently useful to change just one field of a record, while leaving the others intact. Using the constructs seen so far, this can be done by taking apart the record in a record pattern (or using projection), and constructing a new one:

let incr_x {x;f64, y:f64} =
  {x = x+1.0, y = y}

This works fine for small records, but quickly becomes unwieldy once the number of fields increases. OCaml supports a with construct for this purpose: {p with x = p.x+1.0} (using OCaml’s dot notation for field access). This works fine, and would also function in Futhark, but we opted for a more general construct instead.

So far, record expressions have consisted of comma-separated field assignments. We extend this notation, so that an arbitrary expression can occur in place of a field assignment:

{p, x = #x p}

An expression used like this (here, p) must itself evaluate to a record. The fields of that record are added to the record constructed by the record expression. For example, we can rewrite incr_x:

let incr_x (p: {x:f64,y:f64}) =
  {p, x = #x p + 1.0}

Record expressions are evaluated left-to-right, such that if duplicate fields occur, the rightmost one takes precedence. That means we could introduce a bug by erroneously writing the above expression as:

{x = #x p + 1, p}

Since p already has a field x, the result of the field assignment will not be included in the resultant record. This error is easy to make, but fortunately also easy to detect and warn about in a compiler.

These extended record expressions are not just for record updates, but perform general record concatenation. For any two records r1 and r2, the record expression {r1,r2} produces a record whose fields are the union of the fields in r1 and r2 (the latter taking precedence).

We do not yet know which programming techniques are enabled by this capability, but we are looking forward to finding out. It seems likely that we will eventually add facilities for partial record patterns (only extracting a subset of fields), as well as some facility for removing fields from records. We may also adopt some form of row polymorphism once the time comes to add full parametric polymorphism to Futhark. But that will have to wait for another blog post.